How does power management work with NVMe technology?

NVMe Specification

The NVMe specification has many features for power management, including support for non-operational power states for low idle power to extend the battery life of mobile devices and laptops. The NVMe specification has autonomous power state transitions so the device can decide when to enter a different active power state, support for runtime D3 for zero power idle and fast resume, and host control thermal management to inform the SSD when to throttle and reduce power based on a thermal setting. Active power states can be set through set features which is great for data center SSDs where some customers want to improve TCO and reduce power by setting an SSD to limit the maximum power consumption.